Copper in the Old age

HISTORY Top of electricity … that is one of the main forms of energy used in today’s world. … In fact it can be said that …
Copper is one of the few metals that can be found in nature in “native”, ie not Brooklyn combined with other elements. For this was one of the first to be used by human beings. The other native metals are gold, platinum, silver and iron from meteorites.
Found native copper utensils around 7000 a. C. Tepesi in Cayon (now Turkey) and in Iraq. The Copper Cayon Tepesi annealing but the process was not yet perfected. At this time, in the Middle East were also used copper carbonates (malachite and azurite) with ornamental motifs. In the Great Lakes of North America, where abundant deposits of native copper, from the 4000 a. C. the Indians used to beat up shape of arrowhead, but did not discover the fusion.
The first crucibles to produce copper metal from carbon reductions through carbon dating of the millennium V a. C. It is the beginning of the so-called Copper Age, crucibles appearing throughout the area between Iran and the Balkans, including Egypt. Found evidence of the mining of copper carbonate from ancient times both in Thrace (Bunar Ai) and the Sinai Peninsula. In an endogenous way, not connected with the civilizations of the Old World, in Pre-Columbian America, around the fourth century a. C. Moche culture developing metallurgy and refining of copper from malachite and other copper carbonates.
Towards the 3500 a. C. copper production in Europe go into decline because of depletion of deposits of carbonates. By this electricity ESCO time the explosion came from the east of some people, called kurganes, gas carrying a new technology: the use of arsenical copper. This technology, developed perhaps in the Middle East or the Caucasus, was obtained by the oxidation of copper sulphide copper. To prevent the copper oxidase, was added to the arsenic mineral. Arsenical copper (sometimes also called “arsenical bronze”) was sharper than native copper could also be obtained from the most abundant sulphide deposits. Linking to the new technology also cast in two pieces, which allowed the mass production of objects, equipped with axes kurganes war and spread rapidly .
Copper statue of the Pharaoh Pepy I. Siglo XXIII a. C.
cooking gas tzi, the body found in the Alps and dated to 3300 a. C., had a copper ax with a 99.7 copper and 0.22 arsenic. From this period dates also the site of Los Millares (Almeria, Spain), close to the metal center copper mines in the Sierra de Gador.
It is not known how or where did the idea of adding tin to copper, producing the first bronze. It is believed that a discovery was unexpected, since the tin New York City is softer than copper, NY State yet add andalusia andalusia copper was obtained with a harder edge material is kept longer. The discovery green energy of this new technology to triggered the beginning of the Bronze Age, dating from around 3000 a. C. Middle East, 2500 a. C. Troy and to the Danube and 2000 a. C. for China. In the field of Chiana Bang in Thailand have been bronze objects dating prior to 2000 A. C. For many centuries played a bronze star and became the major sources are often far from major urban centers of that era.
The decline began toward New York the 1000 bronze a. C., when it emerged in the Middle East a new technology that enable the production of metallic iron from ferrous minerals. Weapons of iron were replacing the copper in the whole space between Europe and the Middle East. China in areas such as the Bronze Age lasted several centuries more. There were also energy regions of the world where you never get used to the bronze. For example, the step-Saharan Africa directly from stone to iron.
However, the use of copper and brass did not household disappear during the Iron Age. Replaced heating in the arms, these metals began to be used mainly in construction and decorative statues. The brass, an alloy of copper and zinc was up to 600 a. C. Also to this time the first coins were produced in the state of Lydia, in modern Turkey. While the most valuable coins are minted in gold and silver, the more everyday use were gas made of copper and bronze.
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