The need for propulsion systems

Artificial satellites to be launched to be placed in orbit, and once it has attained its stationary position in the nominal orbit, require some form of attitude control so they can maintain and targeting a certain position between the Earth, the Sun and possibly Some astronomical objects of interest. Are less subject to resistance although there is a rarefied atmosphere at this point, so that we can stay in orbit for long periods of time with a small amount of propellant for the propulsion and power to make small corrections. Many satellites need, from time to time, move some other orbit and needed to make this operation, the propulsion. When a satellite has exhausted its capacity to do this both correction of the exchange said that orbits its life is exhausted.
Spacecraft designed to travel long distances and therefore need to drive propulsion systems. Need to be launched from the earth’s atmosphere as is done with satellites. The propulsion system in space and it serves to provide autonomy and able to move. For an interplanetary spacecraft travel engines needed to leave Earth’s orbit. Once this could be made, the engines are used to achieve his destiny. Interplanetary ships today do this with a form of short-term adjustments. Among these settings the spacecraft has an attitude just free fall through its orbit.
The most simple and efficient from the standpoint of the propellant consumption for a change of orbit to another is called a Hohmann transfer, the spacecraft begins with a circular orbit around the sun. During a short period of time is an impulse in the direction of motion of the spacecraft (tangent to the path) so as to accelerate or decelerate the spacecraft into an elliptical orbit around the sun which is tangent to the previous orbit. The spacecraft also propelled by the orbit falls freely until it reaches its destination. There are special methods, as the aerofrenado con edison is sometimes used as a final adjustment of the orbit.
Artistic conception of the operation and provision of a solar sail.
Some methods of propulsion such as solar sails provide very imposing a tiny but steady. A propulsion system of these characteristics is capable of interplanetary travel long distances with a propelante almost “infinite”, following a path different from that defined by Hohmann transfer orbit because it is constantly pushed radially outwards from the solar system from the Sun at its center.
Spacecraft engaged in interstellar travel also requires a method of propulsion jets. Electric bills in the summer can be high but with a green energy company. At present there is a ship built with these characteristics, but many designers are part of an ongoing discussion. Since interstellar distances are very large, we need to go through a high speed within a reasonable time to reach the destination. Acquiring these speeds is a technological challenge today.

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