Problems in switched data networks

Many things happen to packages from origin to destination, resulting in the following problems as seen from the viewpoint of the transmitter and receiver:
Single package
The routers may fail to release some packets if they arrive when the buffers are already full. Some, none or all packets can be loose, depending on the state of the network, and it is impossible to determine in advance what will happen. The application of the receiver can ask for information that will be broadcast possibly causing long delays along the transmission.
It may happen that packets take a long time to reach its destination, because they can stay in long queues or take a less direct route to prevent congestion of the network. In some cases, excessive delays can cripple applications such com or VoIP or online games.
Packets from the transmitter can reach their destination with different delays. A delay of a packet varies unpredictably with their position in the queues of routers along the path between the transmitter and the destination. This variation in delay is called jitter and can seriously affect the quality of streaming audio and / or video.
Delivery of packages out of order
If a set of interrelated packets are routed to the Internet, packets may take different routes, resulting in different delays. This occasion that the packets arrive in different order as they were sent. This problem requires a protocol that can settle out of order packets to an isochronous estdo time they reach their destination. This is especially important for data streams of video and VoIP, where quality is dramatically affected by both latency and loss of sync.
Sometimes, packages are misdirected, corrupted, or if combined when directed. The recepctor and just needs to detect when the package is released, he asked the transmitter to repeat himself.

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